Entrenamiento muscular respiratorio en el paciente pediátrico con enfermedad respiratoria crónica

Respiratory muscular training in the pediatric patient with chronic respiratory disease

Contenido principal del artículo

Javier Eliecer Pereira Rodríguez
Grace Carolina Curvelo Celedón
Resumen

Introducción: Los niños con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas se caracterizan por presentar síntomas respiratorios permanentes que ocasionan compromiso pulmonar, debilidad de los músculos respiratorios y periféricos, para lo cual reciben un tratamiento integral que incluye el entrenamiento muscular respiratorio. Objetivo: Analizar los efectos del entrenamiento muscular respiratorio en el paciente pediátrico con enfermedad respiratoria crónica por medio de una revisión de la literatura publicada entre 2010 y 2021. Materiales y métodos: Revisión integrativa de la literatura, en la que se analizó literatura sobre efectos fisiológicos del entrenamiento muscular respiratorio, herramientas de evaluación de la fuerza respiratoria, métodos de entrenamiento y parámetros para prescribir las cargas de trabajo. Los estudios se identificaron y seleccionaron mediante las recomendaciones de la Declaración de PRISMA, además, se valoró el nivel de evidencia y el grado de recomendación de los estudios incluidos a través de la Escala Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Resultados: El entrenamiento muscular respiratorio ha mostrado ser beneficioso sobre la fuerza muscular respiratoria en pacientes pediátricos con asma, bronquiectasias y enfermedad neuromuscular, sin embargo, en paciente con fibrosis quística la literatura analizada no es concluyente para apoyar o rechazar los efectos de esta estrategia terapéutica. Conclusión: El entrenamiento muscular respiratorio debe ser individualizado en pacientes pediátricos con enfermedad respiratoria crónica de tipo intra o extrapulmonar, por lo que se requiere una evaluación integral que incluya la valoración de la fuerza y la resistencia muscular ventilatoria para prescribir el entrenamiento

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Javier Eliecer Pereira Rodríguez, Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla

Cúcuta - Norte de Santander

Grace Carolina Curvelo Celedón, Corporación Universitaria Iberoamericana.

Fisioterapeuta. Estudiante de la especialización en Fisioterapia en Cuidado Crítico. 

* Este artículo se deriva del estudio requisito de grado para el título de especialista en fisioterapia en cuidado crítico.

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